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Test Definitions


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  Refers to a company that does not manufacture its own silicon wafers and concentrates on the design and development of semiconductor chips. Manufacturers of semiconductors can either build and run their own manufacturing plants or design chips that are manufactured by someone else. A fab is a facility that produces its own silicon wafers. A fabless facility is one that outsources the production of silicon wafers. Fabless companies focus on the design and development of their products.
Source: Webopedia
Fail Operational
  The ability to sustain a failure and retain sufficient operational capability for save mission continuation.
Source: Testability.com
Fail Safe
  The ability to sustain a failure and retain the capability to successfully terminate the mission.
Source: Testability.com
  A real vector response that is measured at the tester and compared to the predicted “expected response”. Any differences between the real response and the expected response is a failure and is the criteria used to discard silicon product. Although vectors are applied to exercise faults, a successfully exercised fault that is propagated to a tester observe point is called a failure.
Source: Inovys
  The state of inability of an item to perform its required function. The functional manifestation of a fault. Often weighted by the failure rate of the function.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
  The event, or inoperable state, in which any item or part of an item does not, or would not, perform as previously specified.
Source: Vibration and Shock
Failure analysis
  Subsequent to failure, the logical systematic examination of an item, its construction, application, and documentation to identify the failure made and determine the failure mechanism and its basic course.
Source: Vibration and Shock
  The logical, systematic examination of a system to identify the probability, causes, and consequences of potential failures.
Source: Testability.com
Failure Analysis Service
  A test service investigating the root cause of the failure. In electronics thes services include semiconductor failure analysis, circuit board failure analysis, electronics and electrical failure analysis, acoustic microscopy and electromigration testing.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
Failure Cause
  The circumstances during design, manufacturing or use which have induced or activated a failure mechanism. The basic reason(s) for a failure. (Compare with Failure Mechanism).
Source: Testability.com
Failure Distribution
  A mathematical model that describes the probability of failure ocurring over time. Also known as a probability density function (pdf), this function can be utilized to determine the probability that a failure takes place in a given time interval
Source: Testability.com
Failure Effect
  The consequences a failure has on the operation, function, or status of a device.
Source: Testability.com
Failure Latency
  The elapsed time between fault occurrence and failure indication.
Source: MIL-STD-2165
Failure mechanism
  The mechanical, chemical, physical or other process that results in failure.
Source: Vibration and Shock
  For a system, the failure mechanism is the process of error propagation following a component failure which leads to a system failure.
Source: Testability.com
  There are a number of failure mechanisms that affect the performance of semiconductor devices. These include oxide breakdown, charge trapping, intermetallic formation, degradation due to electrical overstress or electrostatic discharge, electromigration of atoms, and reliability effects due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches.
Source: Semiconductor Reliability Overview
  There are a number of failure mechanisms that affect the performance of semiconductor devices. These include oxide breakdown, charge trapping, intermetallic formation, degradation due to electrical overstress or electrostatic discharge, electromigration of atoms, and reliability effects due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches.
Source: Semiconductor Reliability Overview
  The process that results in a failure to a system, device or process.
Source: Testability.com
Failure Mode
  The characteristic manner in which a failure occurs. Within a failure mode diagnostic model, failure modes represent specific ways in which a system, device or process can fail.
Source: Testability.com
  The functional result of a fault.
Source: MIL-STD-1309C
  The manner in which certain failures occur. For example, a resistors has three failure modes: open, short and wrong value. An operational amplifier can have a failure mode such as bad gain. A digital circuit often have failure modes of stuck-at-0 and stuck-at-1.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
  A procedure by which each potential failure mode in a system is analyzed to determine the results to effects thereof on the system and to classify each potential failure mode according to its severity.
Source: Vibration and Shock
  A structured approach to determining the seriousness of potential failures and for identifying the sources of each potential failure. The aim is to identify possible failures and implement corrective actions to prevent failures.
Source: Kaizen and Lean Manufacturing Consulting
  An inductive, bottom-up method of analyzing the system effects of individual failure modes.
Source: Testability.com
Failure mode and effects criticality analysis (FMECA).
  Same as a FMEA, except a FMECA also considers the criticality of the failures to human life, system damage, etc.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
Failure Mode Diagnostic Dependency Model
  A failure mode diagnostic model that has been represented using a single or multi-dimensional dependency model.
Source: Testability.com
Failure Mode Diagnostic Model
  A diagnostic model whose agents are based exclusively on failure space. Although a failure mode diagnostic model may include elements based on negative failure space, it lacks the ability to correlate members of the two spaces. Although failure mode diagnostic models provide a useful link between FMECA analysis and run-time diagnostics, their usefulness as a tool for influencing a diagnostic design is severely limited (since failure mode diagnostic models cannot be developed until relatively late in the design process, when specific failure modes have been identified).
Source: Testability.com
Failure Propagation Graph
  (FPG) - A directed graph which represents the propagation of failures in the system. The vertices of such a graph consist of failure modes, discrepancies and sensor states. The edges in the graph represent the propagation of the failures and correspond directly to the arrows.
Source: Institute for Software Integrated Systems
Failure rate
  function that describes the number of failures to a system, device or component that can be expected to take place over a given unit of time, most often expressed as the number of failures per million hours. It can be computed as the inverse of MTBF.
Source: Testability.com
  The total number of failures within an item population, divided by the total number of life units expended by that population, during a particular measurement interval under stated condition.
Source: Vibration and Shock
Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System
  (FRACAS) - A process by which failures are identified and analyzed so that corrective actions can be implemented back into the design and/or manufacturing process.
Source: Testability.com
Failure Space
  The space comprised of the set of entities (failure modes) describing how a system, device or process is expected to fail.
Source: Testability.com

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