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An A.T.E. Solutions, Inc. Internet Publication
Volume 11 Number 4 February 16, 2007
 


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This Issue's Feature Articles

How Military Testing Standards are Changing

 By:  

Asad Bajwa, MET Labs
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This issue's focus is Military Testing
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Come to the tutorial

Cost Effective Tests Using ATE, DFT and BIST

by Louis Y. Ungar at APEX on February 18, 2007 

What's New in Test
Announcements
  2/16/2007 Test Educational Courses and Resources Web Tool Launched
  2/15/2007 IPC and iNEMI sponsor reliability summit at APEX®
  2/15/2007 XJTAG goes global and appoints multiple distributors to meet demand
  2/13/2007 Silicon wafer shipments grew 20 percent in 2006
  2/13/2007 Winners of Nanotech Measurement Contest Share $5000 in Cash Prizes for Innovative Test Techniques
  2/12/2007 Pickering interfaces named finalist of 2007 EE TIMES ACE Award
  2/9/2007 GOEPEL electronic and TietoEnator sign cooperation agreement
  2/8/2007 Environmental testing certificate program planned for ESTECH 2007
  2/8/2007 Faraday selects Verigy V93000 pin-scale system
  2/8/2007 Registration Opens for 2007 Teradyne Users Group Conference
  2/5/2007 KLA-Tencor revenue up 33%
  2/1/2007 Agilent wins DesignVision award
  2/1/2007 Cadence beats Q4 revenue expectations, misses EPS
  2/1/2007 Synopsys, Magma both claim victory in latest court ruling
Application Notes
  2/15/2007 Designing Next-Generation Test Systems
  2/8/2007 Retrofitting Rack-Mount Based ATEs Using PXI Modules for Virtual Instrumentation
Case Studies
  2/1/2007 Testing MathStar’s field-programmable object arrays
  2/1/2007 The analog in software radio: Testing Software-Defined radios SDRs
FREE Giveaways
  2/5/2007 Agilent Technologies Launches Agilent Measurement Journal
  2/1/2007 Parallel Test Technology: The New Paradigm for Parametric Testing
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  2/9/2007 Who will be left standing in DFM?
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  2/16/2007 NI: The future of test is virtual
  2/15/2007 The Miller's tale: How to calculate Miller capacitance
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  2/1/2007 6½ Digits Is Quite a Handful
  2/1/2007 A Mixed Technology Reliability Assessment of Soldering Failure Modes
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  2/1/2007 Big Can Be Beautiful - Managing a Test Service Company
  2/1/2007 IEEE 1641 supports test and design
  2/1/2007 Improving Wafer Test Throughput and Accuracy With Membrane Probes
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How Military Testing Standards are Changing
Asad Bajwa, MET Labs

The first Radio Frequency Interference issues were encountered by the US military some time prior to World War I when a radio was first installed on a vehicle. However, very little is known about early efforts to address RFI problems until the early 1930s. The first military specification was published by US Army Signal Corps in 1934 as SCL-49. Very soon it became apparent SCL-49 was inadequate. In 1942 it was superseded by specification 71-1303, that addressed shielding, the use of filters, by-pass capacitors, resistor-suppressors, bonding, grounding and proper wire routing. Later a joint Army-Navy standard JAN-I-225 was issued then in 1947.

The subsequent succession of military EMC specifications closely follows the evolution of our electro-technology. Initially, military specification limits for radio frequency interference were established to protect the minimum usable field strength on board vehicles for land, sea, and air. As more sensitive equipment was developed, susceptibility limits were established. With the space age came the concept of electromagnetic compatibility within small platform systems and also between platforms. As a consequence, the equipment and system specifications became more general to include all types of electrical and electronic equipment that require application of EMC techniques during the design, development, production, installation, and operational states.

In early days each major military agency imposed its own electromagnetic interference specification in the procurement of electronic systems or subsystems. Air Force used MIL-I-6181 and MIL-I-26600, the Navy used MIL-I-16910, and the Army used MIL-I-11748 and MIL-E-55301(EL). Soon it became very obvious that there was a need to limit the number of these different specifications and the generation of one unified standard to serve all government and military agencies. That gave birth to the idea of a combined Specification for all branches; the first such attempt was the government publication of MIL-STD-826 in January 1964.

Soon after MIL-STD-461A was issued in August 1968, as a result, approximately 20 basic and subsidiary specifications were superseded. The 461 document focused on requirements and the 462 standard prescribed measurement methodologies. It was accepted by the joint services and was also used by many other countries. Since the 1970s EMC personnel of the US Army, Navy and Air Force have periodically met and upgraded MIL-STD-461 and 462. The latest revision (1999) consolidated the two standards into one standard: MIL-STD-461E. This latest edition is an "interface" standard of requirements to provide reasonable assurance (during development) that a system, subsystem or equipment will be compatible with its anticipated electromagnetic environment.

Some of the most significant changes in MIL-STD-461/D/E and the older revisions are as follows:

  • Deletion of Broadband emission tests.
  • 6 dB, measurement bandwidths.
  • Susceptibility scan times specified.
  • ANSI C63.14 is referenced for definitions.

Military EMC Standards have evolved, over the past few decades dramatically from a simple beginning to very detailed standards to keep pace with the "Technology Explosion" and the resultant complex electromagnetic environment. The MIL-STD-461/2 D as well as the new MIL-STD-461E were developed (1990 to 1999) by approximately 15 U.S. government and industry experts to meet the ever changing electromagnetic environment. However, the development of EMC specifications is never finished since the technology requiring compatibility constantly changes.

 
 
Next Issue's Product/Service Focus
In our next issue of Product/Service Focus we will cover Charting, Logging, and Data Acquisition. You can add or upgrade a listing before the next issue comes out.

If you would like to include an exclusive article on how to best select Charting, Logging, and Data Acquisition, please contact LouisUngar@ieee.org.
 

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Events/Announcements
2007
2/18
   Cost Effective Tests Using ATE, DFT and BIST
3/6 - 3/8
   Fundamentals of Random Vibration and Shock Testing, HALT, ESS, HASS
9/17 - 9/21
   AutoTestCon 2007
2/20 - 2/27
   APEX/IPC Printed Circuits Expo
2/24 - 2/27
   Electrical Safety and Reliability Conference
2/25 - 3/1
   Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC)
2/27 - 3/2
   Expo Comm Mexico
2/27 - 3/2
   CRC-IEEE BAST Workshop
2/28
   Boundary Scan Day UK
3/5 - 3/7
   International Test Synthesis Workshop (ITSW 2007)
3/11 - 3/15
   IEEE Wireless Communications & Networking Conference (WCNC 2007)
3/11 - 3/14
   IEEE Latin-American Test Workshop (LATW 2007)
3/20 - 3/22
   Aviation Industry Expo
3/20 - 3/21
   Amircan Contract Manufacturers Conference
3/21 - 3/23
   Electronica and Productronica China
3/27 - 3/29
   Aerospace Testing Expo 2007 - Europe
4/1 - 4/5
   Embedded Systems Conference
4/4 - 4/6
   SMT/PCB & NEPCON Korea
4/10 - 4/12
   Fundamentals of Random Vibration and Shock Testing, HALT, ESS, HASS
4/11 - 4/13
   IEEE Workshop on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS 2007)
4/15 - 4/19
   International Reliability Physics Symposium
4/16 - 4/20
   International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE 2007)
4/16 - 4/20
   Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE)
4/20
   Diagnostic Services in Network-on-Chips
4/24 - 4/27
   Nepcon China 2007
4/24 - 4/26
   SMT/HYBRID/PACKAGING 2007
4/29 - 5/2
   ESTECH 2007
4/30 - 5/3
   International Instrumentation Symposium
5/6 - 5/10
   IEEE VLSI TEST SYMPOSIUM (VTS 2007)
5/8 - 5/10
   Automotive Testing Expo Europe
5/10 - 5/11
   IEEE International Workshop on Open Source Test Technology Tools
5/14 - 5/17
   International Electrostatic Discharge Workshop
5/15 - 5/17
   NEPCON UK
5/20 - 5/24
   12th IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS'07)
5/23 - 5/24
   International Workshop on Silicon Debug and Diagnosis (SDD07)
5/24 - 5/25
   European Board Test Workshop (EBTW)
6/3 - 6/8
   IEEE MTT-S/International Microwave Symposium
6/3 - 6/6
   Semiconductor Wafer Test Workshop (SWTW 2007)
6/4 - 6/8
   44th Design Automation Conference
6/12 - 6/14
   Fundamentals of Random Vibration and Shock Testing, HALT, ESS, HASS
6/18 - 6/21
   International Metrology Congress
6/19 - 6/22
   Nepcon Malaysia
6/20 - 6/22
   Fundamentals of Random Vibration and Shock Testing, HALT, ESS, HASS
6/20 - 6/21
   Successful Lead-Free RoHS Strategies Conference – Do it Right, Do it Now
6/21 - 6/24
   Nepcon Thailand
7/8 - 7/13
   EMC Symposium
7/9 - 7/11
   International On-Line Testing Symposium (IOLTS'07)
7/10 - 7/12
   Fundamentals of Random Vibration and Shock Testing, HALT, ESS, HASS
7/16 - 7/20
   Coordinate Metrology Systems Conference (CMSC)
8/7 - 8/9
   National Instruments' NI Week
8/21 - 8/23
   International Military & Aerospace / Avionics COTS Conference
8/28 - 8/31
   NEPCON South China
9/9 - 9/12
   International KGD (Known Good Die) Packaging & Test Workshop
9/21 - 9/23
   IEEE Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM2007)
9/26 - 9/28
   International Symposium on Integrated Circuits
9/26 - 9/28
   International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems (DFT'07)
10/7 - 10/11
   SMTA International 2007
10/22 - 10/23
   IEEE Product Safety Engineering Society Symposium
10/23 - 10/25
   International Test Conference 2007
10/24 - 10/26
   Automotive Testing Expo North America
10/30 - 10/31
   NEPCON East
11/4 - 11/9
   Antenna Measurement Techniques Association (AMTA) Symposium
11/6 - 11/8
   Aerospace Testing Expo 2007 - North America
11/6 - 11/8
   Bohai Electronics Week
11/6 - 11/8
   Vision
11/11 - 11/13
   National Quality Education Conference
11/13 - 11/16
   Productronica
New Definitions
New terms added to the Test Definition section:
Automatic Test Markup Language
ClearBlue
Design for Debug
Hall Effect
IEEE 1641-2004 IEEE Standard for Signal and Test Definition
In situ
Post silicon
Pre Silicon
Test Insertion
Value Change Dump
VHSIC Hardware Description Language
Work Around
We now have 2359 test terms in our Test Definition section.

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